Simple Lithology

tholeiitic basalt

definition Tholeiitic basalt is defined here to contain 2 pyroxene phases and interstitial quartz or tridymite or cristobalite in the groundmass. Pyroxene (augite and orthopyroxene or pigeonite) and calcium-rich plagioclase are common phenocryst minerals. Olivine may also be a phenocryst, and when present, may have rims of pigeonite. Only in tholeiitic basalt is olivine in reaction relationship with melt. Interstitial siliceous residue may be present, and is often glassy. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively poor in sodium. This category includes most basalts of the ocean floor, most large oceanic islands, and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau. more like this
note Definition of tholeiite and alkali basalt here are more proscriptive than those found in most reference authorities. This is to actually provide some descriptive criteria to allow assignment of rocks on a hand sample basis to the tholeiite or alkali basalt categories if detailed petrographic or chemical data are available. more like this
source; Carmichael, I.S. Turner, F.J., Verhoogen, John, 1974, Igneous petrology: New York, McGraw HIll Book Co., p.42-43. more like this
broader basalt
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is primary topic of tholeiitic basalt